CD Genomics Blog

Explore the blog we’ve developed, including genomic education, genomic technologies, genomic advances, and genomics news & views.

mRNA Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Function, and Association with Disease

mRNA Definition Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are single-stranded molecules in cells that transfer genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the place where proteins are synthesized in the cytoplasm (the ribosomes). mRNAs are a group of RNAs that can be translated into proteins, while other RNAs cannot. Because nearly every function in the organisms […]

Ribosomes and Ribosome Profiling

What Are Ribosomes? Ribosomes are one of the essential cell organelles, which play a critical part in the course of translating the genetic information reserved in the genome into protein products. Ribosomes are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. They float free in the cytosol of prokaryotic/eukaryotic cells or on the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic […]

Amplicons and Amplicon Sequencing

Amplicons Definition In molecular biology, amplicons represent DNA or RNA fragments that are the source and/or product of amplification or replication events. They can be naturally formed through gene duplication. Natural gene duplication plays a crucial role in genomic evolution. In this context, an amplicon refers to a section of chromosomal DNA that has been […]

Chloroplast Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Genome, and Function

Chloroplast Definition Chloroplast, found in plant cells and some protists such as algae and cyanobacteria, is a cell organelle known as a plastid. Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell by converting light energy of the sun into sugar that can be used by the cell. This entire process is known as photosynthesis and […]

Mitochondria Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Function and Genome

What Are Mitochondria? Mitochondria are recognized as the powerhouse of the cell since they help convert oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are small organelles (usually 0.75~3 micrometers), found in nearly all types of human cells except mature red blood cells, as well as cells of other […]

Plasmid Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure and Application

What is a plasmid? Plasmids are the small circular or linear double-stranded DNA molecules (ranging from a few to several hundred kilobases) found in bacterial cells but also present naturally in archeae and eukaryotes. The plasmids are not packaged inside a chromosome, and have no distinct 5’ or 3’ beginning or end. They can autonomously […]

Introduction to DNA Microarray Technology

What is a DNA Microarray? Microarray is a common laboratory tool for detecting gene expression or gene mutations in a high throughput manner. These slides are also known as gene chips or DNA chips. Thousands of probes (with known identity) are immobilized on a microscope slides or silicon chips or nylon membrane, with thousands of […]

What Is DNA Methylation

Not all genes are active at all times. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modification used by cells to regulate gene expression. In recent decades, researchers have discovered that methylation is involved in many cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, embryonic development, gene suppression, carcinogenesis, X-chromosome inactivation, and preservation of chromosome stability. And abnormal DNA methylation […]

Introduction to Next Generation Sequencing Technology

Next generation sequencing (NGS), high-throughput sequencing, or massively parallel sequencing are related terms that describe the DNA sequencing technology which has revolutionized the biological research. Characterized by ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed, NGS enables researchers to sequence a human genome within a single day, which Sanger sequencing took over a decade to accomplish the final […]

Fact Sheet: Genome, DNA, RNA

What is a genome? A genome is the complete set of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses) of an organism. It is sufficient to build and maintain that organism. Each nucleated cell in the body contains this same set of genetic material. In humans, a copy of the entire genome consists of more than 3 […]