CD Genomics Blog

Explore the blog we’ve developed, including genomic education, genomic technologies, genomic advances, and genomics news & views.

Virus Sequencing: Technologies, Features, and Significance in Outbreaks

Emerging infectious diseases have the potential to impose enormous mortality, morbidity, and economic burdens on humans. Tracking the spread of infectious diseases to help control them has traditionally relied on the analysis of case data collected during the course of an epidemic or pandemic. Over the last few decades, there has been a few cases […]

DNA Sequencing: Definition, Methods, and Applications

What Is DNA Sequencing? DNA Sequencing is the method that determines the order of the four nucleotides bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the DNA molecule and convey important genetic information. In the DNA double helix, the four bases bond with the specific partner to form units called base pairs (bp). Adenine […]

Sanger Sequencing: Introduction, Principle, and Protocol

What Is Sanger Sequencing? Sanger sequencing, also known as the “chain termination method,” was developed by the English biochemist Frederick Sanger and his colleagues in 1977. This method is designed for determining the sequence of nucleotide bases in a piece of DNA (commonly less than 1,000 bp in length). Sanger sequencing with 99.99% base accuracy […]

mRNA Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Function, and Association with Disease

mRNAs Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) are single-stranded molecules in cells that transfer genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where proteins are synthesized (in the ribosomes). mRNAs are a group of RNAs that can be translated into proteins, while other RNAs cannot. Because nearly every function in the organisms is carried out […]

Ribosomes and Ribosome Profiling

What Is Sanger Sequencing? Sanger sequencing, also known as the “chain termination method” was developed by the British biochemist Frederick Sanger and his colleagues in 1977. This method is designed for determining the sequence of nucleotide bases in a piece of DNA (commonly less than 1,000 bp in length). Sanger sequencing with 99.99% base accuracy […]

Amplicons and Amplicon Sequencing

Amplicons Definition In molecular biology, amplicons represent DNA or RNA fragments that are the source and/or product of amplification or replication events. They can be naturally formed through gene duplication. Natural gene duplication plays a crucial role in genomic evolution. In this context, an amplicon refers to a section of chromosomal DNA that has been […]

Chloroplast Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Genome, and Function

Chloroplast Definition Chloroplast, found in plant cells and some protists such as algae and cyanobacteria, is a cell organelle known as a plastid. Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell by converting light energy of the sun into sugar that can be used by the cell. This entire process is known as photosynthesis and […]

Mitochondria Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Function and Genome

What Are Mitochondria? Mitochondria are recognized as the powerhouse of the cell since they help convert oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are small organelles (usually 0.75~3 micrometers), found in nearly all types of human cells except mature red blood cells, as well as cells of other […]

Plasmid Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure and Application

What is a plasmid? Plasmids are the small circular or linear double-stranded DNA molecules (ranging from a few to several hundred kilobases) found in bacterial cells but also present naturally in archeae and eukaryotes. The plasmids are not packaged inside a chromosome, and have no distinct 5’ or 3’ beginning or end. They can autonomously […]

Introduction to DNA Microarray Technology

What is a DNA Microarray? Microarray is a common laboratory tool for detecting gene expression or gene mutations in a high throughput manner. These slides are also known as gene chips or DNA chips. Thousands of probes (with known identity) are immobilized on a microscope slides or silicon chips or nylon membrane, with thousands of […]