CD Genomics Blog

Explore the blog we’ve developed, including genomic education, genomic technologies, genomic advances, and genomics news & views.

Mitochondria Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Function and Genome

What Are Mitochondria? Mitochondria are recognized as the powerhouse of the cell since they help convert oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are small organelles (usually 0.75~3 micrometers), found in nearly all types of human cells except mature red blood cells, as well as cells of other […]

Plasmid Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure and Application

What is a plasmid? Plasmids are the small circular or linear double-stranded DNA molecules (ranging from a few to several hundred kilobases) found in bacterial cells but also present naturally in archeae and eukaryotes. The plasmids are not packaged inside a chromosome, and have no distinct 5’ or 3’ beginning or end. They can autonomously […]

Introduction to DNA Microarray Technology

What is a DNA Microarray? Microarray is a common laboratory tool for detecting gene expression or gene mutations in a high throughput manner. These slides are also known as gene chips or DNA chips. Thousands of probes (with known identity) are immobilized on a microscope slides or silicon chips or nylon membrane, with thousands of […]

What Is DNA Methylation

Not all genes are active at all times. DNA methylation is a common epigenetic modification used by cells to regulate gene expression. In recent decades, researchers have discovered that methylation is involved in many cellular processes, including genomic imprinting, embryonic development, gene suppression, carcinogenesis, X-chromosome inactivation, and preservation of chromosome stability. And abnormal DNA methylation […]

Introduction to Next Generation Sequencing Technology

Next generation sequencing (NGS), high-throughput sequencing, or massively parallel sequencing are related terms that describe the DNA sequencing technology which has revolutionized the biological research. Characterized by ultra-high throughput, scalability, and speed, NGS enables researchers to sequence a human genome within a single day, which Sanger sequencing took over a decade to accomplish the final […]

Fact Sheet: Genome, DNA, RNA

What is a genome? A genome is the complete set of DNA (or RNA in RNA viruses) of an organism. It is sufficient to build and maintain that organism. Each nucleated cell in the body contains this same set of genetic material. In humans, a copy of the entire genome consists of more than 3 […]

Microbial Genomics Approaches to Promote Crop Yield

The importance of microbiology in crop yield Plants, bacteria, and fungi have coexisted in soil in a symbiosis for millions of years, and they both benefit greatly from symbiosis. Healthy microbial communities perform a variety of vital ecosystem functions, such as pathogen suppression and regulation of nutrient availability. For example, microorganisms make essential elements such […]

A Summary of Microbial Research in Animals

Why do we need to perform microbial research in animals? Enormous amounts of microorganisms live both within and on animal, the animal and its microorganisms exchange energy substances, transmit information to each other and form a holistic system. The impact of microorganisms on animal health is mainly reflected in mutual benefit sharing and symbiosis. If […]

Why Do We Perform 16S rRNA Sequencing

What is 16S rRNA? 16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome, roughly 1500 base pairs. Figure 1A shows how 16S rRNA is involved in a prokaryotic ribosome. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene contains nine hypervariable regions (V1-V9) ranging from 30-100 base pairs, flanked by conserved regions (Figure 1C). You can find […]

18S rRNA and Its Use in Fungal Diversity Analysis

What is 18S rRNA? 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) is a component of the small eukaryotic ribosomal subunit (40S), and 40S and 60S constitute eukaryotic ribosomes. As a structural RNA for eukaryotic ribosomes, 18S rRNA, the homologue of 16S rRNA in prokaryotes and mitochondria, is thus one of the essential components of all eukaryotic cells. […]