CD Genomics Blog

Explore the blog we’ve developed, including genomic education, genomic technologies, genomic advances, and genomics news & views.

Blog Archives

Ribosomes and Ribosome Profiling

What Is Sanger Sequencing? Sanger sequencing, also known as the “chain termination method” was developed by the British biochemist Frederick Sanger and his colleagues in 1977. This method is designed for determining the sequence of nucleotide bases in a piece of DNA (commonly less than 1,000 bp in length). Sanger sequencing with 99.99% base accuracy […]

Amplicons and Amplicon Sequencing

Amplicons Definition In molecular biology, amplicons represent DNA or RNA fragments that are the source and/or product of amplification or replication events. They can be naturally formed through gene duplication. Natural gene duplication plays a crucial role in genomic evolution. In this context, an amplicon refers to a section of chromosomal DNA that has been […]

Chloroplast Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Genome, and Function

Chloroplast Definition Chloroplast, found in plant cells and some protists such as algae and cyanobacteria, is a cell organelle known as a plastid. Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell by converting light energy of the sun into sugar that can be used by the cell. This entire process is known as photosynthesis and […]

Mitochondria Fact Sheet: Definition, Structure, Function and Genome

What Are Mitochondria? Mitochondria are recognized as the powerhouse of the cell since they help convert oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell. Mitochondria are small organelles (usually 0.75~3 micrometers), found in nearly all types of human cells except mature red blood cells, as well as cells of other […]

Why Do We Perform 16S rRNA Sequencing

What is 16S rRNA? 16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome, roughly 1500 base pairs. Figure 1A shows how 16S rRNA is involved in a prokaryotic ribosome. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene contains nine hypervariable regions (V1-V9) ranging from 30-100 base pairs, flanked by conserved regions (Figure 1C). You can find […]

18S rRNA and Its Use in Fungal Diversity Analysis

What is 18S rRNA? 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) is a component of the small eukaryotic ribosomal subunit (40S), and 40S and 60S constitute eukaryotic ribosomes. As a structural RNA for eukaryotic ribosomes, 18S rRNA, the homologue of 16S rRNA in prokaryotes and mitochondria, is thus one of the essential components of all eukaryotic cells. […]

Principle and Workflow of Illumina Next-generation Sequencing

Illumina, established in 1998 in San Diego, CA, is a leading company in the field of sequencing. In 2006, Illumina acquired Solexa, got the next-generation high-throughput sequencing technology and developed it into a mainstream technology on the market. It currently provides sequencing systems such as MiSeq, HiSeq 2500, HiSeq 3000, HiSeq 4000, HiSeq X Ten, HiSeq […]

Evolutionary Factors Have Stronger Influence on Gut Microbiome than Diet Patterns

As we all know that gut microbes provide multiple services to host, including digestion. Mammals with special diets, such as carnivores and anteaters, have special gut microorganisms to make it possible for them to eat such food. A common theme in the microbiome field is that the host diet has a significant impact on their […]

16S rRNA, One of the Most Important rRNAs

What is the 16S rRNA 16S rRNA (16S ribosomal RNA), is a component of the prokaryotic ribosome 30S subunit. The “S” in 16S is a sedimentation coefficient, that is, an index reflecting the downward velocity of the macromolecule in the centrifugal field. The higher the value, the greater the molecule. The 16S rRNA gene is […]

Basic Facts about Microsatellite Genotyping—Introduction to Microsatellites

Microsatellites, also known as simple tandem repeats (STRs), are simple repeat sequences distributing in eukaryotic genomes, which are composed of 2 ~ 6 nucleotide tandem repeats. The repeating times in individual are variable, therefore, the application of microsatellite markers is very extensive. Microsatellite loci is usually amplified by PCR. PCR products are analyzed by electrophoresis […]